The use of inverse partial fluorescence yield allows obtaining spectra free from saturation effects, but it does not allow investigating or quantifying the non-radiative decay at the L-edge of transition metals. Resolving this issue could be realized by discriminating between the various fluorescence contributions, in particular that of oxygen Kα from those of the metal L-edges and between the different L-edge contributions themselves. Such a method was recently developed
and combined with the liquid micro-jet technique and named state dependent partial fluorescence yield (SD-PFY).
SD-PFY contributions from different transitions are separately integrated in order to obtain FY spectra from specific states. For separating the different photon energies, an XES spectrometer in Rowland-circle design can be used. Figure taken from the review of Lange et al.
Soldatov, Mikhail A., Kathrin M. Lange, Malte D. Gotz, Nicholas Engel, Ronny Golnak, Alexander Kothe, and Emad F. Aziz. “On the Origin of Dips in Total Fluorescence Yield X-ray Absorption Spectra: Partial and Inverse Partial Fluorescence Yield at the L-edge of Cobalt Aqueous Solution.” Chemical Physics Letters 546 (September 12, 2012): 164–167. doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2012.07.067.